One of the most important parts of an exercise routine is preparing for it properly.
Stretching is an important part of any exercise program – and becomes even more important as we age – but it’s also the most neglected component of fitness.
Typical exercisers don’t do enough stretching, devoting more of their exercise time to burning calories or getting stronger.
For motivation, you might consider flexibility gains from stretching an anti-aging investment, because stretching lengthens the muscles that increase your freedom of movement.
How our joints move may depend upon many factors outside our control, such as genes and bone structure, but we can control our muscle flexibility.
For years, it was believed that static stretching (stretch and hold) before exercise would decrease injuries, prevent post-exercise soreness and improve exercise performance. Current research tells us there is no evidence of such benefits.
Today, the preferred way of warming up for any physical activity is through dynamic (active) movements rather than static stretching. Save static stretches for the end of the workout, when muscles are warm and more receptive to the stretch.
Static stretches are also safe and effective for everyday home exercisers.
Some different types of stretching:
Static stretching: This is the most popular form of stretching. You gradually stretch your muscle or muscle group until you feel mild tension (never pain) and hold that stretch for 10 to 30 seconds. Good to do after any physical activity.
Dynamic stretching: Using continual, controlled movements through a full range of motion. An example would be leg swings, knee lifts and lunges.
Dynamic stretching increases body and muscle temperature, enhances joint flexibility and increases muscle elasticity through a range of motion, says Cedric Bryant, chief exercise physiologist for the American Council on Exercise. Good for warming up.
Ballistic stretching: Bouncing with repetitive movements to take the stretch beyond its normal range of motion. It is not recommended for the typical exerciser.
This type of stretching can place too much tension and trauma on the muscle being stretched and its connective tissue.
Myofascial release: This is a type of self-massage that you can do at home. Apply pressure on the tight muscles you want to stretch by sliding those areas over a foam roller.
It improves flexibility by helping your joints move through their full range of motion.
It helps reduce lower-back discomfort.
It improves posture, balance and coordination; stretching the back and shoulders will help prevent a slouching back.
It improves circulation by increasing the blood supply to muscles and joints.
It keeps muscles more supple.
It’s a good stress reliever, helping to develop mental and physical relaxation.
It just feels good.
Static stretching tips
Always warm up before stretching. Stretching while muscles are cold and tight could result in muscle tears and strains.
Hold each stretch for 10 to 30 seconds and repeat several times; no bouncing into the stretch.
Incorporate all major muscle groups into your stretch routine.
Never force a stretch. Stretch until you feel mild tension, not pain.
Breathe slowly. Inhale just before going into the stretch and exhale through your mouth as you stretch. Take several deep breaths while holding the stretch.
To reduce muscle imbalances, stretch tight muscles and strengthen weak muscles.
If you are doing strength exercises, try stretching in between sets.