NEW YORK – A Frenchman and an American shared the Nobel Prize in physics Tuesday for inventing methods to peer into the bizarre quantum world of ultra-tiny particles, work that could help in creating a new generation of super-fast computers.
Serge Haroche of France and American David Wineland opened the door to new experiments in quantum physics in the 1990s by showing how to observe individual atoms and particles of light called photons while preserving their quantum properties.
Quantum physics, a field about a century old, explains a lot about nature but includes some weird-sounding behavior by individual, isolated particles. A particle resists our idea of either-or: its not here or there, its sort of both. Its not spinning clockwise or counter-clockwise, but a bit of both. It gets a definite location or spin only when its measured.
Working separately, the two scientists, both 68, developed ingenious laboratory methods that allowed them to manage and measure and control fragile quantum states, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said.
Wineland traps ions – electrically charged atoms – and measures them with light, while Haroche controls and measures photons.
Their ground-breaking methods have enabled this field of research to take the very first steps towards building a new type of superfast computer based on quantum physics, the academy said. The research has also led to the construction of extremely precise clocks that could become the future basis for a new standard of time.
Haroche is a professor at the College de France and Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris. Wineland is a physicist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, or NIST, and the University of Colorado in Boulder.