SAVAR, Bangladesh – The walls of the cavernous AKH clothing factory are covered in red arrows. They point to three wide emergency staircases with evacuation plans posted on every floor. They point to fire extinguishers attached to the walls and pillars throughout the factory. They point to medical kits located near designated workers with First Aid stitched onto their shirts.
It is the type of factory that garment manufacturers hope will persuade Western brands to keep making clothes in Bangladesh despite a recent factory fire and a building collapse that killed more than 1,100 people.
But just down the road, the seamier side of the industry lives on in a tiny, stiflingly hot factory. Very young-looking seamstresses sew snowsuits for export at cramped work stations. The aisles are blocked by piles of clothing. Power cords hang haphazardly along the walls.
This is the type of factory the government and the major garment manufacturers have decided must reform or die if the nations $20 billion-a-year garment export industry is to continue to thrive.
We have A grade (factories) and we also have D grade, said Shahidullah Azim, vice president of the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association. Now is the time for survival of the fittest.
The Dhaka industrial suburb of Savar shows both sides of an industry that began just three decades ago with some sewing machines in entrepreneurs homes and has since exploded into a global clothing manufacturing hub.
Some buildings appear ultra-modern, with outdoor fire staircases and mirrored windows. Others have bars on all the windows and gray, raw concrete exteriors that no one has painted. Many have steel reinforcing bars jutting from the rooftops, awaiting floors yet to be added.
A government investigation blamed the April collapse of the Rana Plaza factory building, which killed 1,129 people, on its poor construction, the illegal addition of floors to the building, and the use of heavy equipment it was never designed to hold.
Investigators said the November fire at the Tazreen factory, which killed 112, was so deadly in part because clothing was stored in the stairwell, which turned the emergency exit into a chimney billowing smoke, fire and toxic fumes from the burning fibers.
Many Western brands said they were not aware their clothes were being made at the factories because of the tangle of subcontracting deals that are routine in the garment business here.
After the twin tragedies, some brands pledged to help raise safety standards. Others, most prominently Disney, announced they were pulling out completely.
The government and the manufacturers association are taking a carrot-and-stick approach toward reforms aimed at preventing another disaster that could cause more companies to follow Disneys lead.
One target is the estimated 600 factories that perform subcontracting work for export but dont belong to the BGMEA – freeing them from even minimal industry oversight. The organization issued a set of guidelines this month aimed at either bringing those factories into the fold or crushing them.
The new rules mandate that factories that get subcontracts be members of the BGMEA or a related organization for knitting factories. They need to have insurance coverage for their workers. And the company that placed the initial order has to agree in advance to have it subcontracted, eliminating confusion over where its clothing is made.
Those who fail to abide by the new rules can be suspended from the organization, effectively barring them from importing fabric and exporting clothes, said the BGMEAs Azim.
The organization has also inspected 200 factories it believed were at risk and shut 20 of them, he said.
The government announced plans for a special economic zone on 532 acres near the capital, where factories that are located in unsafe buildings will be moved into modern facilities with the help of cheap loans, Textiles Minister Abdul Latif Siddique said.
The government has also proposed hiring hundreds of new fire safety inspectors to beef up Dhakas current force – just 15 people tasked with inspecting the citys 10,000 factories and warehouses.
It can be difficult to shut down factories, even those with obvious safety issues, said Sheikh Mizanur Rahman, a deputy director of Dhakas fire service.
Before shutting a dangerous factory, the fire department must first issue a letter demanding improvements. It can refuse to renew the annual fire safety certificates of factories that fail to comply. But factories can continue operating as they file appeals, first to the government and then to the courts.
Since the Tazreen fire, there have been more than 40 fires in Bangladesh garment factories, killing 16 people and injuring hundreds more, according to the Solidarity Center, an international labor rights group.